The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in 1439. The era witnessed impressive economic development. It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century.[57]. The national carrier, MALÉV, operated flights to over 60, mostly European cities, but ceased operations in 2012. Hungary's highest courts are located in Budapest. The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in 2012; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary. The world population at this time was estimated to be 811 million. [citation needed] The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. The intercensal increase yielded a fairly high growth rate of 5.9 per cent per annum, with a large portion due undoubtedly to the extra population of the New Terri tories since the last census in 1891. In 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1.4% of GDP by 2022. [203] Life expectancy was 71.96 years for men and 79.62 years for women in 2015,[204] growing continuously since the fall of Communism. Three years later, because of the growing desertion, defeatism and low morale, the Kuruc forces finally surrendered.[82]. For that, we recommend visiting these two prior animations: The 20 Most Populous Megacities in 2100 and The World’s Population by Region in 2100. [261] There are about 54 Grandmasters and 118 International Masters in Hungary, which is more than in France or United Kingdom. Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world. In March 1919, communists led by Béla Kun ousted the Károlyi government and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic (Tanácsköztársaság), followed by a thorough Red Terror campaign. The freshly unified Hungarians[52] led by Árpád (by tradition a descendant of Attila), settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. [259] The track was completely resurfaced for the first time in early 2016, and it was announced the Grand Prix's deal was extended for a further five years, until 2026.[260]. Petersburg. Well-known companies include the Fortune Global 500 firm MOL Group, the OTP Bank, Gedeon Richter Plc., Magyar Telekom, CIG Pannonia, FHB Bank, Zwack Unicum and more. Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrolls the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the secondary vocational schools for intermediate students lasts four years and the technical school prepares pupils for vocational education and the world of work. The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations. Bilsky, Leora (2004): Transformative Justice: Israeli Identity on Trial (Law, Meaning, and Violence), University of Michigan Press. [127], In September 2018, the European parliament voted to act against Hungary, under the terms of Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union. [159] Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and others.[160]. The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties (megye). Károlyi yielded to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers. King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II (1490–1516), supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy. Population became an increasingly politicized area. [193][194] Hungary has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific disciplines, notably physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. Humans are unique in their ability to alter their environment with the conscious purpose of increasing its carrying capacity. The seminal opening of the previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989 accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. The leader of the Austrian army, Julius Jacob von Haynau, became governor of Hungary for a few months, and ordered the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, and Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Le taux de variation de la population 2018 correspond à la somme du solde naturel 2018 et du solde migratoire 2018 divisée par la population au. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Jewish (0.1%), Buddhist (0.1%) and Muslim (0.06%) communities are in the minority. [210] Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries and by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide. During the initial stages of the Protestant Reformation, most Hungarians adopted first Lutheranism and then Calvinism in the form of the Hungarian Reformed Church. [195] Until 2012 three individuals: Csoma, János Bolyai and Tihanyi were included in the UNESCO Memory of the world register as well as the collective contributions: Tabula Hungariae and Bibliotheca Corviniana. Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital. Large Hungarian companies are included in the BUX, the Hungarian stock market index listed on Budapest Stock Exchange. The vast majority of the seventeen and nineteen thousand Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs rather than ethnic Turkish people. [148] It was the second election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012. The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: receiving foreign heads of state, formally nominating the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the National Assembly, and serving as Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Low-budget airline WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy. The Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur ('ten [tribes of the] Ogurs'). In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall. The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from 1896. This ability is a major factor responsible for human population growth and a way of overcoming density-dependent growth regulation. Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by Gáspár Károli (The second Hungarian Bible translation in the history), the Protestant pastor of Gönc, in 1590. The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Ground Force and the Hungarian Air Force. Braham, Randolph (2004): Rescue Operations in Hungary: Myths and Realities. [258] Since 1986, the race has been a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship. Ceux-ci sont généralement considérés comme faisant partie de leur pays d'origine. Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. There are about 120,000 Jews in Hungary today.[216][217]. Mais en 1993 se produisit un nouvel et important décrochage qui mena la fécondité à un plus bas historique de 1,30 en 2002. Créée en 1983 par l’Université de Lille 1, siège de sa publication, Espace Populations Sociétés est une revue pluridisciplinaire, internationale et thématique. C'est un indicateur synthétique des taux de mortalité par âge de 2018. This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in 1998 and 2002; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected. is $265.037 billion x 39% = $103,36 billion", "Benchmarking global city competitiveness", "Research and development (R&D) – Gross domestic spending on R&D – OECD Data", "Researchers in R&D (per million people)", "Global Innovation Index – ANALYSIS – Hungary", "The National Research, Development and Innovation Office", "World Development Indicators : Google Public Data Explorer", "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", "Hungarian government sends women home to make babies", "Hungary's natural decrease decelerates further", "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", "Vital statistics, Hungarian Central Statistical Office (KSH)", A roma népesség területi megoszlásának változása Magyarországon az elmúlt évtizedekben Changes in the Spatial Distribution of the Roma Population in Hungary During the Last Decades, "Hungarian census 2011 – final data and methodology",,412178&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL#sett, "Jewish Life Takes to the Streets at Hungary's Celebrated Judafest", "Hungary: A new synagogue for Budapest but anti-Semitism on rise", "Global Competitiveness Record 2013/2014", "List of the entitled people for free insurance, National Healthcare Fund, 2013", "Dőzsölők és szűkölködők – Miből gazdálkodnak az egyházak?, Figyelő (financial status of the churches in Hungary, Hungarian)", "Hungary leading in Dental Tourism in Europe –", "Hungary aims at bigger bite of dental tourism", "Dental Tourism Development clinics turnover up 19%", "Hungarian Tourism promotes medical tourism – IMTJ", "STADAT – 1.1. Hungary formally joined the Axis Powers on 20 November 1940, and in 1941, participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some of its former territories in the south. The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into 1920. During the era of communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989), a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. The gene pool is the sum of all the alleles at all genes in a population. Statistiques de la Hongrie. Unicum is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion. In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. 202,000 ethnic Germans were expelled to Germany,[119] and through the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties, Hungary was again reduced to its immediate post-Trianon borders. Nagy promised market liberalization and political openness, while Rákosi opposed both vigorously. The vote was carried with the support of 448 MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018. From over 800,000 Jews living within Hungary's borders in 1941–1944, about 255,500 are thought to have survived. By October 1944, the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite some losses, succeeded in encircling and besieging Budapest in December. The first printing house was also founded during Matthias' reign, by András Hess, in Buda. Naissances cette année: 74. As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. In 1939, Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia through force. One of the greatest Hungarian composers, Béla Bartók, was also among the most significant musicians of the 20th century. Hungary's capital city, Budapest, is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor. In 1968, the New Economic Mechanism (NEM) introduced free-market elements into socialist command economy. This article is about the country. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. [45], The "H" in the name of Hungary (and Latin Hungaria) is most likely due to founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color – red, blue, or black. La Hongrie fut le premier pays d'Europe à enregistrer pour la première fois une chute de la natalité sous le seuil des 2,1 enfants par femme, nécessaire à l'époque pour assurer le simple remplacement des générations. However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. The legislature consequently approved a new constitution, among other sweeping governmental and legal changes. Sigismund established Óbuda University in 1395. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. As of 2018, twelve Hungarian scientists have been recipients of a Nobel Prize. It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control. Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about 525 square kilometres (203 square miles). The aim of the present article is to describe the interaction between agricultural policy, the successes or failures of agriculture, and the lot of the peasants in Poland and Hungary since 1956.La revalorisation relative des revenus paysans apparaît comme le changement le plus saillant intervenu dans la répartition des revenus en Hongrie et en Pologne depuis une quinzaine d'années. The country has more than $100 billion export in 2015 with high, $9.003 billion trade surplus, of which 79% went to the EU and 21% was extra-EU trade. The Hungarian Grand Prix in Formula One has been held at the Hungaroring just outside Budapest, which circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Both are in Latin. Despite some early successes,[97] the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with the Allies after the Second Army suffered catastrophic losses at the River Don in January 1943. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary. The invading Mongol force was defeated[72] near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. In 1963, the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising. Human population growth since 1000 AD is exponential (dark blue line). The employment rate in the economy was 68.3% in 2017,[175] the employment structure shows the characteristics of post-industrial economies, 63.2% of employed workforce work in service sector, the industry contributed by 29.7%, while agriculture with 7.1%. [155], The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. [14] The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe. The capital Budapest has a special status and is not included in any county while 23 of the towns are so-called urban counties (megyei jogú város – town with county rights). [19], The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Notable Hungarian inventions include the lead dioxide match (János Irinyi), a type of carburetor (Donát Bánki, János Csonka), the electric (AC) train engine and generator (Kálmán Kandó), holography (Dennis Gabor), the Kalman filter (Rudolf E. Kálmán), and Rubik's Cube (Ernő Rubik). As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms. Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. Although contemporary Hungary has no official religion and recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental right, the Hungarian constitution "recognizes Christianity's nation-building role" in its preamble[211] and in Article VII affirms that "the state may cooperate with the churches for community goals. [73] His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library. [77] Orthodox Southern Slavs were also acting as akinjis and other light troops intended for pillaging in the territory of present-day Hungary. Temperature extremes are 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 20 July 2007 at Kiskunhalas in the summer and −35 °C (−31.0 °F) on 16 February 1940 Miskolc-Görömbölytapolca in the winter. Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at 882 metres (2,894 ft). Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias (1458–1490). [196], Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.43 children per woman is well below the replacement rate of 2.1,[197] albeit higher than its nadir of 1.28 in 1999,[198] and remains considerably below the high of 5.59 children born per woman in 1884. The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. The Franks under Charlemagne defeated the Avars in a series of campaigns during the 790s. Photo : Brendel Matyas, Wikipédia Hungarian is the official and predominant spoken language in Hungary. Population actuelle: 4 599 459. We're in the midst of the Earths sixth mass extinction crisis. [169] Hungary has a more than 80% privately owned economy with 39,1% overall taxation, which provides the basis for the country's welfare economy. [95][96] Though the revision of the Treaty quickly rose to the top of the national political agenda, the Horthy government was not willing to resort to military intervention to do so. [93][94] Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings. Under Stephen, Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom. [254] Hungary has historically excelled in Olympic water sports. Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.[124]. Décès cette année: 104. Population totale La définition de population englobe tous les résidents indépendamment de leur statut légal ou de leur citoyenneté, à l'exception des réfugiés qui ne sont pas établis en permanence dans leur pays d'adoption. Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, Laszlo Kontler, "A History of Hungary" p. 145, Peter N Stearns, The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 4, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 64, Laszlo Peter, Martyn C. Rady, Peter A. Sherwood: Lajos Kossuth sas word...: papers delivered on the occasion of the bicentenary of Kossuth's birth (page 101), Alfred de Zayas "Raoul Wallenberg" in Dinah Shelton Encyclopedia of Genocide (Macmillan Reference 2005, vol. The states are further subdivided into 174 districts (járás) as of 1 January 2013[update]. Hungary won its first gold medal in Winter Olympics in 2018 in mens short track speed skating with a team of four: Csaba Burján, Sándor Liu, Shaoang Liu, Viktor Knoch. Naissances aujourd'hui: 116 304. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The Hungarian National Bank—founded in 1924, after the dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 3%. Hungarian is the 13th most widely spoken first language in Europe with around 13 million native speakers and it is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union. In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest OECD Non-DAC donor of development aid in the world, which represents 0.13% of its Gross National Income. Au 1er janvier 2017, la Hongrie comptait une population de 9 797 561 habitants[13]. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dissolved following its defeat in the First World War.. Hungarian folk music has been significant in former country parts that belong – since the 1920 Treaty of Trianon – to neighbouring countries such as Romania, Slovakia, Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and Transylvania; both regions have significant numbers of Hungarians. Karikázó is a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folk songs. The fertility rate has gradually increased from 1.27 children born/woman in 2011. Some studies indicate a considerably larger number of Romani in Hungary (876,000 people – c. 9% of the population.). [181][182] Budapest is also among the Top 100 GDP performing cities in the world, measured by PricewaterhouseCoopers and in a global city competitiveness ranking by EIU, Budapest stands before Tel Aviv, Lisbon, Moscow and Johannesburg among others. Some 13,000 were interned and 230 brought to trial and executed. There are five international airports in Hungary: Budapest Liszt Ferenc (informally called "Ferihegy" after its previous name), Debrecen, Sármellék (also called Hévíz-Balaton Airport), Győr-Pér, and Pécs-Pogány. The common tripartite division of the country into three sections—Dunántúl ("beyond the Danube", Transdanubia), Tiszántúl ("beyond the Tisza"), and Duna-Tisza köze ("between the Danube and Tisza")—is a reflection of this. [26][27] Following the failed 1956 revolution against the Soviet-backed government, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressive, member of the Eastern Bloc. Learning of the planned defection, German troops occupied Hungary on 19 March 1944 to guarantee Horthy's compliance. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers. There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary.[250]. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. The Prime Minister (miniszterelnök) is elected by the National Assembly, serving as the head of government and exercising executive power. Since 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in 1717. The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). Depuis 1982-1983, le solde naissances/décès ne cesse d'être négatif et le pays a déjà perdu plus de 600 000 habitants. Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a "systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law. The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in 2008, as youth development thrives. For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania, the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt, which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas. In the second half of the 16th century, the Jesuits led a Counterreformation campaign and the population once again became predominantly Catholic. Comparator of population size for continents and countries, 1950-2100 [126] By the time Kádár died in 1989, the Soviet Union was in steep decline and a younger generation of reformists saw liberalization as the solution to economic and social issues. [81], Between 1703 and 1711, there was a large-scale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". Tout au long de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle, la Hongrie a présenté un parcours démographique tout à fait atypique. The last strong king of medieval Hungary was the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), son of John Hunyadi. The Great Depression further exacerbated the situation and the popularity of fascist politicians such as Gyula Gömbös and Ferenc Szálasi, promising economic and social recovery, rose. [16][17] His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. [166] Furthermore, it is the 9th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index. Horloge de la population de la Hongrie 9 685 106. The Soviet leadership selected Mátyás Rákosi to front the Stalinization of the country, and Rákosi de facto ruled Hungary from 1949 to 1956. [20][21][22] Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. [270] During UEFA Euro 2016 Hungary won Group F and were eventually defeated in the round of 16. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology, information security, and related hardware research. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 22 février 2020 à 22:47. [242], Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in The History of Wine, the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making and the country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. Many reformers (Lajos Kossuth, Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities. In. Other important ones include Dunaújváros and Baja. In addition, the capital (főváros), Budapest, is an independent entity. Traditional dishes such as the world-famous Goulash (gulyás stew or gulyás soup) feature prominently in Hungarian cuisine. Népesség, népmozgalom (1900–)", "Govt allocates HUF 450 mln to company facilitating tobacco sales monopoly",, "General information on various student flats and building types in Budapest", "Sörhelyzet, Magyarország 2016 – Gault&Millau kalauz – Gault&Millau Magyarország", "127/2009.

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